Types of drug interactions: Food, supplements, drugs, and conditions


Ismail Hossain প্রকাশের সময় : ডিসেম্বর ১৫, ২০২২, ১১:৫৭ অপরাহ্ন /
Types of drug interactions: Food, supplements, drugs, and conditions

Many medicines can have an interaction with alcohol, like wine, beer or spirits. This might interfere with your successful treatment or cause dangerous side effects. Mixing drugs like opioid pain medicines, sleeping pills or anxiety treatments with alcohol can be unsafe or even deadly. Always check to see if your medicines interact alcoholism rehab with alcohol before you combine the two. If a patient is on insulin, which reduces blood sugar, and also beta-blockers, the body is less able to cope with an insulin overdose. Pharmacodynamic interactions are the drug-drug interactions that occur at a biochemical level and depend mainly on the biological processes of organisms.

  1. Doctors who are not aware of what others have prescribed may inadvertently prescribe similar drugs.
  2. Alcohol is itself a drug and may cause central nervous system side effects, like drowsiness, dizziness or fainting.
  3. They reduce aches and pains, fight infections, and control problems such as high blood pressure or diabetes.
  4. Open and transparent communication with your healthcare team is instrumental in ensuring your overall well-being and adept management of potential interactions.

When medications inhibit the enzymes, it may slow down the body’s process to remove the drug, leading to higher-than-expected levels of the drug in the body. In some cases, this is done on purpose, but most of the time, this interaction could cause unwanted side effects. An example is citalopram, the metabolization of which is slowed down by omeprazole (e21), and the risk of unwanted effects such as QT prolongation rises. Omeprazole also inhibits demethylation of the benzodiazepine diazepam. At a dose of 20 mg, omeprazole results in a 36% increase in the half-life of diazepam and a 27% reduction in its clearance; giving 40 mg omeprazole increases the half-life by 130% and clearance by 54%.

They can also tell you how to monitor for efficacy changes or side effects that may occur as a result of a drug interaction. Apart from the pharmacokinetic interactions, another aspect to consider with SSRIs is potentiation of the serotonergic effects. It is known that simultaneous administration of moclobemide can trigger serotonin syndrome and is contraindicated for that reason. However, other drugs with serotonergic effects such as tramadol or triptans can increase the risk of serotonin syndrome. When triptans such as sumatriptan are used at the same time, there is an additional risk of coronary artery constriction and hypertension. Interaction must be expected for several days after the last administration of SSRIs, because of their long half-life (Box 3).

Always consult your healthcare provider about how drug interactions should be managed before making any changes to your current prescription. They reduce aches and pains, fight infections, and control problems such as high blood pressure or diabetes. But medicines can also cause unwanted reactions, such as drug interactions, side effects, and allergies. The probability of interactions increases with the number of drugs taken. According to meta-analyses, up to 7% of hospitalizations are drug-related. Talk to your health care providers and pharmacist about all the drugs that you take.

Based on metabolism

These interactions occur due to action on the same targets, for example the same receptor or signaling pathway. St. John’s wort, a herbal supplement often employed to alleviate symptoms of depression and anxiety, can engender interactions with a diverse array of medications. These encompass antidepressants, birth control pills, and blood thinners. Such interactions can curtail the efficacy of these medications or usher in unanticipated side effects. Patients are strongly urged to divulge all medications they are currently taking, spanning over-the-counter drugs, supplements, and herbal remedies. This transparency empowers healthcare providers to make informed decisions when introducing new medications.

Talk with your doctor or pharmacist to get the most accurate and up-to-date information about your personal risk of drug interactions. While supplements are beneficial for people with a deficiency, they still have potential side effects and interactions, just like any other medication. The supplements a person takes can interact with prescription drugs or other supplements. Over-the-counter drugs, food, supplements, and alcohol can all change the way the body metabolizes (breaks down) medication. The symptoms of drug interactions vary greatly and range from mild to life threatening. Some common warning signs include feeling sick after taking a medication, not getting the usual results from a medication, or feeling either very tired or very energetic after taking a medication.

Drugs & Supplements

Drug interactions that cause important changes in the action of a drug are of greatest concern. Patients should be observed and monitored for adverse effects, particularly after a change in treatment; some interactions (eg, effects that are influenced by enzyme induction) may take ≥ 1 week to appear. Drug interactions should be considered as a possible cause of any unexpected problems.

What is Drug interaction?

For example, many prescription-strength pain relievers contain an opioid plus acetaminophen. People taking such a product who do not know its ingredients might take over-the-counter acetaminophen for extra relief, risking toxicity. Certain drugs may affect the absorption of other drugs when taken one before the other. Antacids like calcium tablets can prevent the absorption of the antifungal medication ketoconazole, for example. Be sure to tell your doctor that you smoke if they’re recommending you start a new medication. Another example is metformin (a diabetes drug) and kidney disease.

The drug interactions checker will check for interactions between the drugs you enter, any possible food or disease interactions and pregnancy / breastfeeding warnings. There are natural reactions that exist in the air, in our food, and even in our bodies to keep us healthy. When we take medications, this introduces a change to our body’s natural function. When we take multiple medications, there is a potential that the drugs can interact with each other. Drug interactions can change our body’s response for better or worse. For vitamin K antagonists, however, coadministration of broad-spectrum antibiotics such as amoxicillin (alone or with clavulanic acid) or doxycycline appears to be a determinant of bleeding events.

Make sure they know all the medicines, vitamins, and supplements you’re taking. That’s extra important if you have more than one doctor who prescribes medicines for you. You could show them a list of the meds you’re taking, or bring the medication packages to your appointment. Most drugs that you swallow enter your blood through your intestines. Sometimes a drug or supplement can block or trap another drug in the intestine before it can be absorbed.

Therefore, these drugs are taken with food in order to increase their concentration in the body and, ultimately, their effect. Conversely, when a drug’s absorption is reduced by food, the drug is taken on an empty stomach. In pharmacodynamic interactions, one drug alters the sensitivity or responsiveness virtual meeting schedule of tissues to another drug by having the same (agonistic) or a blocking (antagonistic) effect. These effects usually occur at the receptor level but may occur intracellularly. The prescription stock bottle may also have warning labels in the form of colorful stickers located directly on bottles.

Your prescription bottle or other written information will explain if you should avoid grapefruit juice with your medicine. Your pharmacist may attach a special sticker to your bottle, or it may be found in printed instructions they give to you. If you have questions about food or drink interactions with your medicines, your pharmacist is a great resource. Most drug interactions are minor, but some can result in significant harm if not discovered and managed appropriately.

Healthcare professionals can extend guidance on strategies to curtail the hazards linked with these prevalent drug interactions. Within the realm of healthcare, grasping the concept of drug interactions holds immense significance. These interactions materialize when two or more elements, such as medications, supplements, or even specific foods, influence how a drug operates within the body. By delving into the intricacies of drug interactions, we can uncover the potential repercussions they may wield on treatment effectiveness and patient well-being.

Data sources include Micromedex (updated 3 Mar 2024), Cerner Multum™ (updated 17 Mar 2024), ASHP (updated 20 Mar 2024) and others. Product labels and monographs often contain information about common or significant drug interactions that should be considered prior to taking the medication and strategies to avoid them. Learn about their intended effects, potential side effects, and any interactions.